What Is Electroplating? We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. The collisions between particles and cathode determine the codeposition of the particles and they are diminished in the high MoS2 concentration region resulting in slight increase or decreased particle amount in the growing metal deposit [6]. Electroplating is quick and effective if the external power source is sufficient. Therefore, it is important to figure out the current density values at which hydrogen evolution does not occur together with metal deposition [4]. Both of the conductive and non-conductive particles have their own advantages against each other. However, this process has some disadvantages such as the fact that the process contains an electrolytic bath having hexavalent chromium, which is a highly carcinogenic material. An example of a chemical change is when nickel plating improves corrosion resistance. Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? Electroplating can be performed at room temperature or lower, and the effect of thermal stress is much smaller than in other methods. For example, like in your case, having a good adhesion for the Ni does not mean it will also happen with Cr. The electroplating of gold allows processing of yarns for special applications like sensors or decoration (cf. For instance, when MoS2 particles are used as the incorporate particles, the effect of pH value on the particle content in deposit was insignificant. A popular metal finishing process, electroplating is used in a variety of industries for a wide range of applications. There are many specific examples of electroplating applications across various industries. Electroless plating, also known as chemical or auto-catalytic plating, is a non-galvanic plating method that involves several simultaneous reactions in an aqueous solution, which occur without the use of external electrical power. The electrochemical reaction between the metal M and its ions in the aqueous solution can be represented in simple formulae as below. Large and slow diffusing suppressor adsorbs at the wafer surface and along the via rim, while a fast diffusing accelerator penetrates the via and increases the deposition rate at the bottom of the via. To deposit metal in such deep vias, an alternative bottom-up electroplating can be used. Another advantage of the high temperature is the polarization effect. Generally, increasing the particle concentration in the bath increases the weight percentage of particles in the deposit up to a certain point [9] [22] [23]. Surfactants like sodium lauryl sulphate enhanced the electrostatic adsorption of suspended particles on cathode surface by increasing their positive charges [25]. Zinc-plated fasteners have … Increase in the project cost – Usually, top skilled resources do gold plating. The hydrogen evolution reaction must also be considered during this selection. Electroplating is basically the process of plating a metal onto the other by hydrolysis mostly to prevent corrosion of metal or for decorative purposes. Figure 8.2. 34.9A, all the vias are completely void-free. The process displayed an endothermic nature. The most extensive use of gold plating is on jewellery and watch cases. Because conducting particles (molybdenum disulfide, chromium carbide, zirconium diboride, graphite) attracted to the cathode then act as depositing sites which resulted in dendritic growth [15]. Low pH values, less than 5, are selected to obtain acceptable stress levels [10]. Built by scientists, for scientists. example, electroplating of Palladium is used to manufacture catalytic converters because it has the ability to absorb excess hydrogen. 2n-1 fractional factorial design is a statistical design that can be used to identify the effects of n electrodeposition variables on the coating properties with the reasonable number of experiments. For example, the bumpers of cars are chromium-plated to protect them from corrosion. Researchers have found the nanocrystalline coatings of CO-based alloys are Co–P, Co–W, Co–Ni–Fe, Co–W–Fe, and CO-based nanocomposites such as Co–P, Co–W, Co–Ni–Fe, Co–W–Fe, and Co–P-SiC, Co–Ni–YZA, Co–W–Al2O3, respectively. According to the results of Hu and Bai [41], increasing current density generally increased the particle content but the effect of current density depends on pH. The electroplating process uses an electric current to deposit a thin layer of material on top of an object. Also, mind that the transport of ions in water is a diffusion process and electrode potential does not have that much effect on it. The tightness of the gold layers is influenced by the current density during the electroplating. Electroplating. A simple example of the electroplating process is the electroplating of copper in which the metal to be plated (copper) is used as the anode, and the electrolyte solution contains the ion of the metal to be plated (Cu2+ in this example). There are many specific examples of electroplating applications across various industries. Thus the property of the particles will be uniform on the surface. The advantages … From: Corrosion Prevention of Magnesium Alloys, 2013 Thus, smaller grain sizes are observed at higher current densities due to the increase in the nucleation rate [2]. Electroplating is based on (a) heating effect of electricity (b) chemical effect of electricity (c) physical effect of electricity (d) magnetic effect of electricity. Mechanical properties can be changed by the type of the incorporated particles. Chang et al. For example, the amount of particles is increased by decreasing the particle size in Ni/SiC system . Electroplating works like a galvanic cell in reverse. The diameter and depth of these TSVs are 20 and 300 µm, respectively [40]. This difference in metal deposition leads to void-formation in TSVs. Good interaction between the via sidewalls and electrolytes is also an essential requirement for void-free electrodeposition. Electroplating is done for protection or decoration. One application of electroplating is to create elements that conduct a larger current. IMMERSION PLATING EFFECTS. Within the European Union, a regulation known as REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) came into force in 2007, with the ‘sunset date’ of 2017 for the use of hexavalent chromium-containing compounds in production. Under ordinary conditions, the occurrence of a chemical reaction is accompanied 2.15A shows a typical process using a thick photoresist. All these plated items were produced using the electroplating process. From the calculations of the effect of surface area of an electrode on the rate of electroplating and the subsequent presentation of these results in form of a graph, it is easy to discern that an increase in the surface area of the zinc electrode necessitates a proportional increase in the rate of reaction. Answer. 34.3. It’s primarily used to increase wear resistance, protect against corrosion, increase thickness, or change the aesthetic appeal of an object. The Effect of Surface Area on the Rate of Electroplating Generally the rate of deposition increases with increase in the surface area of the plating surface. While the actual health effects of electroplating depend on the specific chemical, most of the health hazards are very serious 1.Acids are most often used for electroplating, and most of them result in lesions and burns when they touch the skin, according to the handbook 1.The solvents used to clean objects before plating can result in a light-headed feeling, headaches and even death. Electroless plating is a chemical reaction between metal ions and reducing agents (electron source) at an active surface. 2)Purification of metals. Composite coatings are composed of an electrodeposited metal matrix and dispersed solid particles. Table 2.2. Cathode: Cu2+(aq) + 2 e- → Cu(s) Licensee IntechOpen. Moreover, in some applications where electrodeposited chromium is currently employed, there is no requirement for such high hardness, and identification of a material with similar hardness will therefore not be an effective way to select a replacement. 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