[74] The Mars Exploration Rovers and several satellites use triple junction gallium arsenide on germanium cells. Out of 6,028,151 records in the U.S. Social Security Administration public data, the first name Germanium was not present. It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. It is a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors silicon and tin. Alternative Title: Ge. Germanium dioxide, also called germanium oxide, germania, and salt of germanium, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula GeO2. Germanium oxide has a high index of refraction and dispersion. In addition to its applications in electronic devices, germanium is used as a component of alloys and in phosphors for fluorescent lamps. He suggested therefore the name ekasilicon (symbol Es). + For example, germanium chloride and germane (GeH4) are a liquid and gas, respectively, that can be very irritating to the eyes, skin, lungs, and throat. Extremely pure germanium crystals are obtained through a technique termed as zone refining which produces semiconductor grade germanium with an impurity of 1 in 1010. If a whisker grows long enough to touch another part of the assembly or a metallic packaging, it can effectively shunt out a p-n junction. On a weight basis, germanium is a scarce but not an extremely rare (about 1.5 parts per million) element in the crust of the Earth, equaling in abundance beryllium, molybdenum, and cesium and exceeding the elements arsenic, cadmium, antimony, and mercury. [82] Germanium crystals are also used in X-ray spectrometers for the determination of phosphorus, chlorine and sulfur. . Other names germanium(II) selenide. Plasma and urine germanium concentrations in these individuals, several of whom died, were several orders of magnitude greater than endogenous levels. [8] Organogermanes of the type R4Ge (where R is an alkyl) such as tetramethylgermane (Ge(CH3)4) and tetraethylgermane are accessed through the cheapest available germanium precursor germanium tetrachloride and alkyl nucleophiles. The two most important compounds of germanium are the dioxide (GeO2) and the tetrachloride (GeCl4). OTHER; Contacts; Terms Of Use; Cookie Policy; Nickname – Germanium. Regulatory process names 2 IUPAC names 5 Other identifiers 1 . Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature. [30], Germanium is a semiconductor. [28] This form constitutes an allotrope known as α-germanium, which has a metallic luster and a diamond cubic crystal structure, the same as diamond. Presently, the major end uses are fibre-optic systems, infrared optics, solar cell applications, and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Identifiers CAS Number. [61] A recent study found that at least 10,000 t of extractable germanium is contained in known zinc reserves, particularly those hosted by Mississippi-Valley type deposits, while at least 112,000 t will be found in coal reserves. [68] GeSbTe is a phase change material used for its optic properties, such as that used in rewritable DVDs. Germanium selenide Names IUPAC name. Single crystals of germanium are grown in an atmosphere of nitrogen or helium from the molten material. [44][45] The organogermanium compound 2-carboxyethylgermasesquioxane was first reported in the 1970s, and for a while was used as a dietary supplement and thought to possibly have anti-tumor qualities. Germanium was an element whose existence was predicted by Mendeleev in 1871. [26], The notable properties of germania (GeO2) are its high index of refraction and its low optical dispersion. 1970, James W[alter] Mayer; Lennart Eriksson; John A[rthur] Davies, “General F… [30] Like silicon, gallium, bismuth, antimony, and water, germanium is one of the few substances that expands as it solidifies (i.e. Nine radioactive isotopes have been reported. Identified uses: For industry use only. [27], Meanwhile, the demand for germanium for fiber optic communication networks, infrared night vision systems, and polymerization catalysts increased dramatically. The s-process is a slow neutron capture of lighter elements inside pulsating red giant stars. [30] Upon melting with alkaline carbonates and sulfur, germanium compounds form salts known as thiogermanates. [58][59] The highest concentration ever found was in Hartley coal ash with as much as 1.6% germanium. [49], At least 27 radioisotopes have also been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 58 to 89. Germanium is not thought to be an essential element for any living organism. Another source of germanium is fly ash of power plants fueled from coal deposits that contain germanium. Germanium hydride and germanium tetrahydride are very flammable and even explosive when mixed with air. Germanium dioxide, also called germanium oxide and germania, is an inorganic compound, an oxide of germanium.Its chemical formula is Ge O 2.Its other names are germanic acid, G-15, and ACC10380.It forms as a passivation layer on pure germanium in contact with atmospheric oxygen. Source: Radioisotopes and Radiation Methodology I, II. It is of interest that as little as one milligram of dissolved germanium per litre seriously interferes with the electrodeposition of zinc. It is especially used as the front optic in thermal imaging cameras working in the 8 to 14 micron range for passive thermal imaging and for hot-spot detection in military, mobile night vision, and fire fighting applications. [80] Germanium is useful for monochromators for beamlines used in single crystal neutron scattering and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. High-brightness LEDs, used for automobile headlights and to backlight LCD screens, are an important application. In his report on The Periodic Law of the Chemical Elements in 1869, the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev predicted the existence of several unknown chemical elements, including one that would fill a gap in the carbon family, located between silicon and tin. The electrical and semiconducting characteristics of germanium are comparable to those of silicon. [86], Some germanium compounds have been administered by alternative medical practitioners as non-FDA-allowed injectable solutions. [26] CMOS circuit based on GeOI substrates has been reported recently. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. 19.7 Germanium is widely distributed in nature but is too reactive to occur free. Germanium tetrachloride is either hydrolyzed to the oxide (GeO2) or purified by fractional distillation and then hydrolyzed. Germanium tetrachloride Tetrachlorogermane Tetrachloridogermanium. During World War II, small amounts of germanium were used in some special electronic devices, mostly diodes. Print infocard Open Brief Profile. Today, however, other semiconductors have replaced it. Others include gallium, silicon, bismuth and antimony. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Fun Facts about the name Germanium. These are then transformed into semiconductors by being doped (infused) with electron donor or acceptor atoms, either by incorporating the impurities in the melt during growth of the crystal or by diffusing the impurities into the crystal after it has been formed. [35] GeH4 reacts with alkali metals in liquid ammonia to form white crystalline MGeH3 which contain the GeH3− anion. Under normal conditions GeI4 is a solid, GeF4 a gas and the others volatile liquids. This element forms a large number of organogermanium compounds, such as tetraethylgermanium, useful in organometallic chemistry. [52], Germanium's abundance in the Earth's crust is approximately 1.6 ppm. Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. After neutralization, only the zinc stays in solution while germanium and other metals precipitate. Reputation: Neutral 2 2. Common chemical compounds are also provided for many elements. After removing some of the zinc in the precipitate by the Waelz process, the residing Waelz oxide is leached a second time. [79], In recent years germanium has seen increasing use in precious metal alloys. The most stable of these is 68Ge, decaying by electron capture with a half-life of 270.95 days. [30] The unusual compound Ge6Cl16 has been prepared that contains the Ge5Cl12 unit with a neopentane structure. Of these, 76Ge is very slightly radioactive, decaying by double beta decay with a half-life of 1.78×1021 years. OXY-Germanium 10 g (10,000 mg) Germanium selenide is a chemical compound with the formula GeSe. 12065-10-0 ECHA InfoCard: 100.031.862: PubChem CID. How about quantum mechanics? Many other substances now also are used as semiconductors, but germanium remains of primary importance in the manufacture of transistors and of components for devices such as rectifiers and photocells. How unique is the name Germanium? [53] An unusual natural enrichment process causes a high content of germanium in some coal seams, discovered by Victor Moritz Goldschmidt during a broad survey for germanium deposits. Circuits utilizing the properties of Si-SiGe junctions can be much faster than those using silicon alone. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... 36 Questions from Britannica’s Most Popular Science Quizzes. [30] The monoxide, germanous oxide, can be obtained by the high temperature reaction of GeO2 with Ge metal. : 235-547-6. [note 1] The chemist Clemens Winkler analyzed this new mineral, which proved to be a combination of silver, sulfur, and a new element. Germanium. Today, germanium is mined primarily from sphalerite (the primary ore of zinc), though germanium is also recovered commercially from silver, lead, and copper ores.   Although the new element somewhat resembled arsenic and antimony in appearance, the combining ratios in compounds agreed with Mendeleev's predictions for a relative of silicon. [1] [2]History. [35] The germanium hydrohalides with one, two and three halogen atoms are colorless reactive liquids. [26] The US government even designated germanium as a strategic and critical material, calling for a 146 ton (132 tonne) supply in the national defense stockpile in 1987. 0.6 It is a shiny, hard, silver-white metalloid. Germanium is an abundant element and is ranked as the 15th most abundant element in the earth’s crust. A nonmetallic chemical element (symbol Ge) with an atomic number of 32: a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group.quotations ▼ 1.1. [23] These end uses represented 85% of worldwide germanium consumption in 2000. [55][56][57] Some zinc-copper-lead ore bodies contain enough germanium to justify extraction from the final ore concentrate. [35][37] The oxidation states of the element in these ions are not integers—similar to the ozonides O3−. Organic germanium is a man-made blend of germanium, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The five stable isotopes of germanium occur in the following relative amounts: germanium-70, 20.5 percent; germanium-72, 27.4 percent; germanium-73, 7.8 percent; germanium-74, 36.5 percent; and germanium-76, 7.8 percent. Particularly, a very hard special antireflection coating of diamond-like carbon (DLC), refractive index 2.0, is a good match and produces a diamond-hard surface that can withstand much environmental abuse. Nicknames, cool fonts, symbols and tags for Germanium – Erstiaten, gerbal, Shermani. Germanium was discovered by Clemens Winkler in 1886. [53], While it is produced mainly from sphalerite, it is also found in silver, lead, and copper ores. [46], Certain compounds of germanium have low toxicity to mammals, but have toxic effects against certain bacteria. − Primary minerals include argyrodite (from which it was first isolated), germanite, renierite, and canfieldite, all of them rare; only germanite and renierite have been used as commercial sources for the element. Cosmically, germanium is believed to be one of the many elements formed by neutron absorption after the initial processes of hydrogen and helium burning and alpha-particle absorption. The high index of refraction of germanium dioxide renders it valuable as a component of glasses used in optical devices, such as wide-angle lenses for cameras and microscope objectives. Corrections? It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. [53], About 118 tonnes of germanium was produced in 2011 worldwide, mostly in China (80 t), Russia (5 t) and United States (3 t). Other metalloids on the periodic table are boron, silicon, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, and polonium, according to the Los Alamos National Laboratory. [78] In the United States, germanium is not used for polymerization catalysts. Uses advised against: no data available: 1.4 Supplier's details. Germanium compounds in which germanium is in the +2 oxidation state are well characterized as solids, and in general they are readily oxidized. Germanium comes in two forms: organic and inorganic. [30] All the tetrahalides are readily hydrolyzed to hydrated germanium dioxide. Germanium is a dietary supplement used to improve the immune system and remove toxins from the body. His predictions for the properties of germanium are remarkably close to the reality. [26] Germanium transistors are still used in some effects pedals by musicians who wish to reproduce the distinctive tonal character of the "fuzz"-tone from the early rock and roll era, most notably the Dallas Arbiter Fuzz Face. [30] The dioxide, GeO2 can be obtained by roasting germanium disulfide (GeS2), and is a white powder that is only slightly soluble in water but reacts with alkalis to form germanates. [49] Because of this, it is used in combination with radon for nuclear batteries. It exists as black crystalline powder having orthorhombic (distorted NaCl-type) crystal symmetry; at temperatures ~650 °C, it transforms into the cubic NaCl structure. In refining germanium, the low-grade residues obtained from its ores are treated with strong hydrochloric acid, and the resulting germanium tetrachloride is distilled, purified by repeated redistillation, and hydrolyzed to form germanium dioxide, which is then reduced by hydrogen to a powdery form of the metal that is melted at a temperature of about 1,100° C (2,000° F [in an inert atmosphere]) and cast into ingots or billets. [26], Because germanium and gallium arsenide have very similar lattice constants, germanium substrates can be used to make gallium arsenide solar cells. [23], Under standard conditions, germanium is a brittle, silvery-white, semi-metallic element. It was discovered by Clemens Winkler. This makes it suitable for use in wide-angle camera lenses and objective lenses for microscopes. Other early research suggests that taking propagermanium, another form of germanium, by mouth for 1-7 months might benefit people with multiple myeloma, a type of blood cancer. Nevertheless, it is not soluble in acidic water, which allowed Winkler to discover the element. [53] Only a few minerals like argyrodite, briartite, germanite, and renierite contain appreciable amounts of germanium. There are five naturally occurring isotopes of germanium: germanium-70, germanium-72, germanium-73, germanium-74, and germanium-76. [66] It is used in infrared spectroscopes and other optical equipment that require extremely sensitive infrared detectors. Silicon has superior electrical properties, but it requires much greater purity that could not be commercially achieved in the early years of semiconductor electronics. Germanium properties, uses and trends | Periodic Table of the Elements - complete information about the germanium element - Facts, atomic mass, melting point, How to Locate on Periodic Table, History, Abundance, Physical Properties, Thermal Properties, Crystal Structure, Atomic & Orbital Properties, electron configuration, Chemical Properties germanium … Atomic number 32, Bis-Carboxyethyl Germanium Sesquioxide, Carboxyethylgermanium Sesquioxide, Ge, Ge-132, Ge- Oxy 132, Germanio, Germanium-132, Germanium Inorganique, Germanium Lactate Citrate, Germanium Sesquioxide, Inorganic Germanium, Numéro Atomique 32, Organic Germanium, Sesquioxyde de Germanium, Spirogermanium. Both are sold as supplements. This quiz will take you through 36 of the hardest questions from Britannica’s most popular quizzes about the sciences. Ask your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist if you need more information about this medicine or if any information in this leaflet concerns you. Both zinc-process concentrates and ash and flue dusts from coal-burning installations provide commercial sources of germanium. Updates? [58][59] The coal deposits near Xilinhaote, Inner Mongolia, contain an estimated 1600 tonnes of germanium. Company: WWW.GuideChem.COM: Address: 8F, Block C, No.3 Building, Zijin Plaza, No.701, Gudun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310030, China: Telephone +86-571-89739798: Fax: 86(21)54365166: 1.5 … [26], Solar panels are a major use of germanium. [25] From 1950 through the early 1970s, this area provided an increasing market for germanium, but then high-purity silicon began replacing germanium in transistors, diodes, and rectifiers. Similar to silicon and aluminium, naturally-occurring germanium compounds tend to be insoluble in water and thus have little oral toxicity. In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted its existence and some of its properties from its position on his periodic table, and called the element ekasilicon. (The name germanium derives from the Latin word Germania [Germany] and was given to the element by Winkler.) Elemental germanium can be electrodeposited from many solutions and melts of its compounds. The least stable is 60Ge, with a half-life of 30 ms. Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Nearly two decades later, in 1886, Clemens Winkler found the new element along with silver and sulfur, in a rare mineral called argyrodite. [note 3] So instead, Winkler named the new element germanium (from the Latin word, Germania, for Germany) in honor of his homeland. [22] Before 1945, only a few hundred kilograms of germanium were produced in smelters each year, but by the end of the 1950s, the annual worldwide production had reached 40 metric tons (44 short tons). 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